The rising Latino population in the United States has been marginalized in an English-speaking society, and Spanish speakers increasingly find themselves as “language-less,” according to Dr. Jonathan Rosa of New York University. Rosa is an assistant professor and faculty fellow in the Department of Social and Cultural Analysis and Latino Studies Program at New York University. His lecture, titled “Spanglish Only? U.S. Language Ideologies and Latino Ethnolinguistic Identities,” discussed the way language plays a role in lives of Hispanic Americans. Rosa collected research from New Northwest High School, a Chicago public high school whose student body is more than 90 percent Mexican and Puerto Rican. The difference between Mexican and Puerto Rican Spanish was apparent in the Spanish-speaking community, but was not recognized by individuals who only spoke English, Rosa said. English-speakers tended to group all Spanish-speakers together into one Latino category. “Here is a symbolic relationship in which Latinos are imagined to embody the Spanish language and the Spanish language becomes emblematic of Latinos,” he said. Rosa said he interviewed many students from the high school about their language background. These students said the differences in pronunciation and rhythm between Puerto Rican and Mexican Spanish was acute. In an English-dominated society, native Spanish speakers are marginalized no matter what their background, he said. “Latinos can be doubly stigmatized through their presumed lack of English and Spanish language proficiency,” Rosa said. The term “bilingual” no longer means being proficient in two languages but instead deficiency in one language, he said. “As people who are expected to speak a language but then are understood to speak no language properly, Latinos are positioned as a linguistic inferior,” Rosa said. Rosa also said Latinos, even when speaking unaccented English, are stereotyped because others automatically associate their race with a language they do not understand. Some Latinos then pronounce Spanish words with an English accent or use the Spanish-English combination of “Spanglish.” “Competing forces require Latinos to signal that they are acceptable other by speaking Spanish in English without being heard to possess an accent,” he said. “Latinos manage these demands by integrating English and Spanish forms in newfound ways that signal their linguistic dexterity.” These linguistic problems are challenges for young people like the students at New Northwest High School as they move into adulthood and a professional, English-dominated world. “The expectation that Latinos should be proficient in English and Spanish ultimately stigmatizes them in relation to the two languages simultaneously and positions them as having no language.”
Management fees totalled €4.9bn, an increase of 22% compared to 2015. This is because fees tend to be calculated as a percentage of total assets.According to Johan van Soest, senior consultant at LCP, the main reason for the increase in fees was, however, an increase in performance fees.“We’ve noticed pension funds have been able to negotiate much better contract terms with their asset managers in recent years,” he said. “Still, these lower base fees do not compensate fully for an increase in performance fees.”Bpf Bouw, for example, recently reported it had managed to reduce fees paid to hedge fund managers from €37.9m to €30.8m. However, at the same time the fund said it had seen a €6m increase in performance fees since 2013. Large Dutch pension funds have not been able to push their investment management fees to below the 0.5% threshold, even though their assets under management increased by 28% in the past five years.Consultancy LCP looked at total management fees as a percentage of total assets for the seven largest occupational funds – ABP, PFZW, PMT, PME, BpfBouw, Vervoer and PGB – and three large company pension funds (Philips, Rabobank and Shell). Together, these funds administer two thirds of all Dutch pension assets.The average management fees the funds paid in 2019 totalled 0.51%, excluding transaction costs. This is only two basis points less than in 2015, though total assets under management of the 10 funds increased from €763bn to €973bn in 2019 (+28%).Including transaction costs of 0.09%, investment management fees totalled 0.6%, or €6.3bn. This compares to 0.61% in 2015.
9News 25 June 2015Australians support the right of a child to have a mother and a father over the right of same-sex couples to get married, an opinion poll indicates.The Galaxy poll of 1200 Australians, commissioned by the Australian Marriage Forum, found three out of four respondents agreed society should try to ensure children are raised by their own mother and father.Almost 50 per cent said it was more important for a child to have a mother and a father than the right for two men to marry and create a family, while 30 per cent agreed both were equally important.Almost 20 per cent said the right of men to marry each other was more important.Forum president David van Gend told reporters in Canberra on Thursday that Australians needed to understand that legalising same-sex marriage would violate the birth right of children to have both a mother and a father.“You cannot have both,” he said.http://www.9news.com.au/national/2015/06/25/11/08/aust-supports-child-over-gay-rights-poll