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What the flu does to your body, and why it makes…


first_img Please enter your name here The Anatomy of Fear TAGSthe conversation.com Previous articleFuddruckers and City of Apopka team up to recognize studentsNext articleIt’s peach season at Apopka High School Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR By Laura Haynes, Professor of Immunology, University of Connecticut and first published on theconversation.comEvery year, from 5 to 20 percent of the people in the United States will become infected with influenza virus. An average of 200,000 of these people will require hospitalization and up to 50,000 will die. Older folks over the age of 65 are especially susceptible to influenza infection since the immune system becomes weaker with age. In addition, older folks are also more susceptible to long-term disability following influenza infection, especially if they are hospitalized.We all know the symptoms of influenza infection include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, headaches, and fatigue. But just what causes all the havoc? What is going on in your body as you fight the flu?I am a researcher who specializes in immunology at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, and my laboratory focuses on how influenza infection affects the body and how our bodies combat the virus. It’s interesting to note that many of the body’s defenses that attack the virus also cause many of the symptoms associated with the flu.How the flu works its way into your bodyInfluenza virus causes an infection in the respiratory tract, or nose, throat and lungs. The virus is inhaled or transmitted, usually via your fingers, to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose or eyes. It then travels down the respiratory tract and binds to epithelial cells lining the lung airways via specific molecules on the cell surface. Once inside the cells, the virus hijacks the protein manufacturing machinery of the cell to generate its own viral proteins and create more viral particles. Once mature viral particles are produced, they are released from the cell and can then go on to invade adjacent cells.While this process causes some lung injury, most of the symptoms of the flu are actually caused by the immune response to the virus. The initial immune response involves cells of the body’s innate immune system, such as macrophages and neutrophils. These cells express receptors that are able to sense the presence of the virus. They then sound the alarm by producing small hormone-like molecules called cytokines and chemokines. These alert the body that an infection has been established.Cytokines orchestrate other components of the immune system to appropriately fight the invading virus, while chemokines direct these components to the location of infection. One of the types of cells called into action are T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Sometimes, they are even called “soldier” cells. When T cells specifically recognize influenza virus proteins, they then begin to proliferate in the lymph nodes around the lungs and throat. This causes swelling and pain in these lymph nodes.After a few days, these T cells move to the lungs and begin to kill the virus-infected cells. This process creates a great deal of lung damage similar to bronchitis, which can worsen existing lung disease and make breathing difficult. In addition, the buildup of mucus in the lungs, as a result of this immune response to infection, induces coughing as a reflex to try to clear the airways. Normally, this damage triggered by the arrival of T cells in the lungs is reversible in a healthy person, but when it advances, it is bad news and can lead to death.The proper functioning of influenza-specific T cells is critical for efficient clearance of the virus from the lungs. When T cell function declines, such as with increasing age or during use of immunosuppressive drugs, viral clearance is delayed. This results in a prolonged infection and greater lung damage. This can also set the stage for complications including secondary bacterial pneumonia, which can often be deadly.Why your head hurts so muchWhile the influenza virus is wholly contained in the lungs under normal circumstances, several symptoms of influenza are systemic, including fever, headache, fatigue and muscle aches. In order to properly combat influenza infection, the cytokines and chemokines produced by the innate immune cells in the lungs become systemic – that is, they enter the bloodstream, and contribute to these systemic symptoms. When this happens, a cascade of complicating biological events occur.One of the things that happens is that Interleukin-1, an inflammatory type of cytokine, is activated. Interleukin-1 is important for developing the killer T cell response against the virus, but it also affects the part of the brain in the hypothalamus that regulates body temperature, resulting in fever and headaches.A healthy human T cell. Flickr/NIAID.com, CC BY-SAAnother important cytokine that fights influenza infection is something called “tumor necrosis factor alpha.” This cytokine can have direct antiviral effects in the lungs, and that’s good. But it can also cause fever and appetite loss, fatigue and weakness during influenza and other types of infection.Why your muscles acheOur research has also uncovered another aspect of how influenza infection affects our bodies.It is well-known that muscle aches and weakness are prominent symptoms of influenza infection. Our study in an animal model found that influenza infection leads to an increase in the expression of muscle-degrading genes and a decrease in expression of muscle-building genes in skeletal muscles in the legs.Functionally, influenza infection also hinders walking and leg strength. Importantly, in young individuals, these effects are transient and return to normal once the infection was cleared.In contrast, these effects can linger significantly longer in older individuals. This is important since a decrease in leg stability and strength could result in older folks being more prone to falls during recovery from influenza infection. It could also result in long-term disability and lead to the need for a cane or walker, limiting mobility and independence.Researchers in my lab think that this impact of influenza infection on muscles is another unintended consequence of the immune response to the virus. We are currently working to determine what specific factors produced during the immune response are responsible for this and if we can find a way to prevent it.Thus, while you feel miserable when you have an influenza infection, you can rest assured that it is because your body is fighting hard. It’s combating the spread of the virus in your lungs and killing infected cells. LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Please enter your comment! Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 last_img read more


Total and partners secure $14.9bn financing for Mozambique LNG project


first_img The Mozambique LNG project involves the development of Golfinho-Atum offshore gas field. (Credit: gloriaurban4 from Pixabay) French oil major Total and consortium partners have secured $14.9bn financing from several banks for the $20bn LNG project in northern Mozambique.The Mozambique LNG project involves the development of Golfinho-Atum gas field located offshore Area 1 Block of the deep-water Rovuma Basin.It also includes construction of a 12.88 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) onshore LNG facility on the Cabo Delgado coast.The Rovuma Offshore Area 1 consortium secured senior debt financing comprising Export Credit Agency (ECA) direct loans, ECA covered facilities, commercial banks loans, and a loan facility from African Development bank.It raised ECA direct loans from UK Export Finance (UKEF), the Export-Import Bank of the United States (US-Exim), Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and Export-Import Bank of Thailand (Exim Thailand).ECA covered facilities came from UKEF, Atradius Dutch State Business, the Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa Soc (ECIC), SACE and Nippon Export and Investment Insurance (NEXI).Total E&P Mozambique Area 1 operates Offshore Area 1 Block of Rovuma BasinTotal’s wholly-owned subsidiary Total E&P Mozambique Area 1 operates Offshore Area 1 with a 26.5% stake.Other partners in the project include ENH Rovuma Area (15%), Mitsui E&P Mozambique Areal (20%), ONGC Videsh Rovuma (10%), Beas Rovuma Energy Mozambique (10%), BPRL Ventures Mozambique (10%), and PTTEP Mozambique Area 1 (8.5%).JBIC said that the loan would primarily finance the development of the gas field and production of LNG in the project.It is expected that Japanese utility companies would offtake approximately 30% of the LNG from the Mozambique project, stated JBIC.This is considered to be the biggest private debt-financing in Africa inspite of the Covid-19 pandemic and volatility in the oil markets.The project faced several challenges to raise funding due to weakened oil prices as well as growing insurgency in the northern part of the Cabo Delgado province, reported Financial Times.Earlier this year, Air Products was selected to provide its LNG technology, equipment and related process license and advisory services for the Mozambique LNG project. The Mozambique LNG project also involves the construction of a 12.88 Mtpa onshore LNG facility last_img read more


Video: Vuvuzela, Africa’s call


first_imgAnchoring the Brand South Africa campaign for the 2009 Fifa Confederations Cup is a stunning television advert featuring the vuvuzela – the trumpet that has come to symbolise South African football – and nine of Africa’s most famous locations. Click arrow to play video.last_img


Lower demand pushes prices lower


first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest With corn overall demand estimates lowered by 24 million bushels and U.S. corn ending stocks raised by 25 million bushels, farmers can expect about slightly less per bushel according U.S. Department of Agriculture reports released today. While production estimates were unchanged from March and the report indicates increased demand for ethanol, those gains are more than offset by a major increase in feed and residual demand.“U.S. corn farmers have indicated their intention to grow another bountiful crop in 2016 and, if the weather proves favorable, we may see a large corn supply after harvest,” said National Corn Growers Association President Chip Bowling, a farmer from Maryland.  “At NCGA, we work to apply the same expertise and and dedication shown by our members to our efforts to create and grow demand for our crop. America’s farmers sustainably produce a corn crop that can feed and fuel the world. Working together, we can create the opportunities necessary to maximize the potential of this great resource and build a solid future for our farm families as well.”Ending stocks are now expected to reach 1.86 billion bushels, their highest level since 2005. The May report will include USDA’s first projection for the 2016-2017 corn crop.Feed and residual demand estimates were lowered by 50 million bushels reflecting indicated disappearance through the first half of the marketing year. An increase of 25 million bushels to projected demand for ethanol use, which was based upon information from the Energy Information Administration, slightly offset the impact on overall demand.With overall demand decreased, the 2015/16 season-average corn price received by farmers is projected ten cents lower at the top end, with a range of $3.40 to $3.70 per bushel.last_img read more


Kashmir Press Club to hold polls after three decades


first_imgThe journalistic fraternity in Kashmir, where 19 scribes lost their lives to unknown gunmensince 1990, will get to elect its first-ever body for the Kashmir Press Club (KPC) on July 15. As many as 252 working journalists and editors will vote for four posts of office-bearers and a seven-member executive committee. Thirty one candidates are in the fray for the July 15 polls. All the candidates wooed voters through a fierce poster, social media and video campaigns in the past one week, promising social security, exigency funds, free legal support etc.“Holding election for professional organisations is always a welcome step. One hopefully looks forward to its promised positive outcome for the profession as well as the larger public good,” said senior journalist Mohammad Syed Malik. He recalled that regular organisational elections were held prior to 1990 to choose the office-bearers of working journalists’ State unit affiliated to the Indian Federation of Working Journalists (IFWJ). “The onset of turmoil (in 1990) disrupted all. The rest is history,” said Mr. Malik.Kashmir may be a rare place in the country where setting up a press club remained a no-go area. Successive governments identified land and buildings but never handed them over to the journalists. “In the late 1990s, then Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah instructed his Chief Secretary to hand over the keys of a particular building to the media fraternity to start a press club. Later, the Chief Secretary disclosed that the keys of the building had gone missing,” said another senior journalist on condition of anonymity.The setting up of the press club, which was handed over by the previous government to the journalists in 2017, has come at a time when working journalists and editors are under tremendous pressure from many sides in Kashmir.The Kashmir Editors Guild (KEG), a body of editors of local dailies, at a recent meeting said the club “should become a symbol of unity.”Ishfaq Tantry, contesting for general secretary, said, “This election will be a first move towards starting a process of welfare for journalists and their working conditions. It should also become a hub to upscale skills of journalists.”last_img read more


Pocari drops Bali Pure to win another PVL title


first_imgPocari head coach Rommel Abella said their championship form all boiled down to the team’s composure.“It was all about the team’s composure, I remind them every time I call a timeout that they need to be composed and focused at the game at hand,” said Abella.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutThe Water Defenders’ last gasp on life were their three straight points late in the fourth set to cut the Lady Warriors’ lead to 23-18, but Michelle Keddy would quell Bali Pure’s futile attempt to a comeback to put Pocari at match point, 24-18.Pocari Sweat celebrates another PVL title. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.net“Even when Bali Pure scored three straight points, I wasn’t worried that we would lose,” said Abella. “What I was worried about was that they could cut the lead and the momentum would swing to their favor.” LATEST STORIES Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Krystal Rivers, who played her first game with Pocari in the first match of the finals, was magnificent for the Lady Warriors as she put up a game-high 27 points while Finals MVP Myla Pablo added 16 points.Michelle Strizak, who was named the Conference’s Best Import, had 10 points to aid the Lady Warriors in their championship quest.Jeng Bualee and Jennifer Keddy led Bali Pure with 13 points apiece.ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next ‘Young, full of potential’ Chooks-Pilipinas 3×3 team heads to France Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ MOST READ What ‘missteps’? Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Water Defenders, 20-25, 25-17, 25-17, 25-19, in the deciding Game 3.Jessey De Leon rose up for the final hit of the conference and gave Pocari its third straight title in in the tournament formerly known as Shakey’s V-League after conquering last year’s Reinforced and Open conferences.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Pocari drops Bali Pure to win another PVL title2.8K viewsSportsVentuno Web Player 4.51 View comments Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garagelast_img read more


Bulls add to Heat woes at home with 105-89 win


first_imgSEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war ‘We are too hospitable,’ says Sotto amid SEA Games woes LATEST STORIES Tyler Johnson scored 15 points for Miami, which got 14 from Justise Winslow and 13 apiece from Bam Adebayo and Wayne Ellington. The Heat shot 38 percent, including 12 of 42 from 3-point range.The Heat fell to 11-14 at home — and the Bulls, who snapped a four-game slide, moved to 7-20 on the road. Portis had 15 points in the fourth, while Miami’s entire roster managed 21 in the final 12 minutes.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine ‍football chiefSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool starsBoth teams were without key pieces.Miami — which will be without Derrick Jones until mid-March at least and isn’t planning to have point guard Goran Dragic back until at least the All-Star break — held out Dwyane Wade with right knee soreness, with the belief that it isn’t terribly serious. Chicago was without Zach LaVine because of a sprained right ankle, making that determination after he tested it out and experienced pain before the game. MOST READ PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss ‘We are too hospitable,’ says Sotto amid SEA Games woes US judge bars Trump’s health insurance rule for immigrants Celtics overcome Kyrie Irving’s absence to rout Hornets Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Chicago Bulls center Robin Lopez (42) is fouled by Miami Heat forward Justise Winslow (20) during the first half of an NBA basketball game, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Miami. (AP Photo/Lynne Sladky)MIAMI — Bobby Portis scored 22 of his 26 points in the second half, Wayne Selden added 20 and the Chicago Bulls ran away in the second half to beat the Miami Heat 105-89 on Wednesday night.Lauri Markkanen had 14 points and 13 rebounds for the Bulls, who finished January with a 2-13 record — the franchise’s second-worst mark ever in that month. Kris Dunn scored 14 and Robin Lopez added 13 for Chicago, which shot 51 percent.ADVERTISEMENT Oil plant explodes in Pampanga town Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Heat: Miami won the season series 2-1. The Heat have swept the Bulls only twice in 31 seasons. … Hassan Whiteside got a technical foul in the third quarter for pulling himself up on the rim after a dunk. He argued that Markkanen was in his landing vicinity, to no avail. … Josh Richardson scored 12 points.WADE DEALWade was announced Wednesday as an ambassador for BallerTV, a site streaming live amateur sports such as high school basketball. Wade — who has used it to follow his son’s games — said part of the appeal for him is that students do much of the announcing and camera-operating. “They get a chance to get a camera from BallerTV and go do this themselves. It helps youth get to their dreams. I liked that,” Wade said.BIG DIFFERENCEThe temperature at tip-off in Miami was 68 degrees, a bit cool for South Florida. Factor in the wind chill in polar-vortex-stricken Chicago, and the air there at game time felt like minus-34 — a mere 102-degree difference between the two cities.UP NEXTBulls: Visit the Charlotte Hornets on Saturday.Heat: Host the Oklahoma City Thunder on Friday. The Bulls led by 10 after the first quarter, took a two-point lead into halftime and then found themselves trailing by six early in the third. But they answered with an 18-5 run over the next five minutes, and led by three when Dion Waiters tried a 3-pointer with 1:38 left for the tie.It missed, and with that the Bulls were off and running.Chicago finished the quarter on a 7-0 run, taking a 78-68 lead into the fourth. Miami never got closer than seven again.TIP-INSBulls: Carmelo Anthony still appears on Chicago’s roster. The official reason for him not playing is listed as “trade pending.” … Chicago has reached 100 points in 14 consecutive games, the team’s longest streak since the 1991-92 season. … Selden added eight assists.ADVERTISEMENT Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Grace Poe files bill to protect govt teachers from malicious accusations View commentslast_img read more


Oklahoma State’s Top Recruiting Targets at Defensive End


first_imgIf you’re looking for the comments section, it has moved to our forum, The Chamber. You can go there to comment and holler about these articles, specifically in these threads. You can register for a free account right here and will need one to comment.If you’re wondering why we decided to do this, we wrote about that here. Thank you and cheers! Oklahoma State lost a commitment on the edge of their future defensive line this week with Hendrickson defensive end prospect Nelson Mbanasor decommitting from OSU, and likely flipping to Arkansas.With Mbanasor likely moving on from OSU, the coaching staff has been working behind the scenes on a contingency plan, with the expectation that Mbasnasor’s decommitment was a “when” not “if” type scenario.Oklahoma State still holds one pledge at defensive end for the 2017 class in Oologah standout Brock Martin, who appears solid with his pledge. But OSU would like to grab at least one more prospect to add to the mix for next season, and they’ve got two they’re steady after on the recruiting trail.David Anenih – 6-3, 220Anenih is a standout defensive end from Mansfield Timberview, who picked up an offer from the Pokes in mid June. The coaching staff has been recruiting him steadily since, and despite being uncommitted, Oklahoma State currently leads in his recruitment ahead of Houston, Kansas State, and Texas Tech. He’s expected to take his official visits following the football season, but Anenih is one to keep an eye on. He seems very high on OSU and with a spot opening with Mbanasor’s decision, it could be a more inviting place for him.Michael Clemons – 6-6, 240Clemons is the more polished  prospect OSU is chasing, and he’s also a junior college recruit from Cisco College with a dozen scholarship offers. He’s a versatile edge rusher like OSU hasn’t had in recent years. Emmanuel Ogbah, one of the best to do it for OSU, was an elite pass rusher but he was a more ‘hand in the dirt’ get to the QB defensive end. Clemons can do a little of everything, lining up in the down position and as an outside linebacker. OSU is recruiting against Arkansas, K-State, Tennessee, Ole Miss, Mizzou and others for Clemons, who likely factors into an immediate impact prospect next season wherever he chooses.last_img read more


At Least All These Tommy John Surgeries Arent Rotator Cuff Surgeries


No pitcher’s elbow seems safe anymore. Earlier in spring training, Yu Darvish, the perennial Cy Young contender and ace of the Texas Rangers staff, had Tommy John surgery. A week later, promising Mets pitcher Zach Wheeler was under the knife. Those guys are part of a proud lineage of phenoms whose elbows couldn’t withstand the crazy forces of pitching a baseball every five days. In the past five years, 299 major and minor league pitchers have had Tommy John surgery.1According to data collected by sabermetrician Jon Roegele. The epidemic — or whatever you want to call it — isn’t over yet.But beneath the scary headlines and the relentless drumbeat of crisis, there’s a silver lining to this rash of pitcher injuries: Having a bum elbow sure beats having a bum shoulder. Despite all the Tommy John surgeries, we’re living in a golden era of pitcher health.It’s hard not to be anxious about a crisis when you look at data about just how many ulnar collateral ligaments are being repaired through Tommy John surgery. The number of surgeries in the past 10 years is 115 percent higher than it was the 10 years prior.That’s a huge spike, yes, but the intriguing thing is what’s happened as those elbows have flared up: Shoulders haven’t. Using data from Baseball Prospectus’s injury archive (maintained by Corey Dawkins), we can chart the escalating number of elbow surgeries over the past 35 years against the number of shoulder surgeries2This graph looks at all levels of baseball (major and minor leagues) from 1981 onward.: Right around 1998, the two paths diverge, and in recent years, shoulder surgeries are down.3I believe credit for noticing this trend goes to sabermetrician Jeff Zimmerman. After a peak in 2009, when more than 40 operations were performed, shoulder surgeries seem to be fading toward extinction, with only 12 in 2014. Some have attributed the decrease in shoulder injuries to improved shoulder exercises. This explanation is consistent with the fact that shoulder injuries have disappeared for position players, as well.The decreasing trend in shoulder problems matters because shoulder surgeries are more debilitating than the now-routine Tommy John. Whereas about 80 percent of major league pitchers in my data set4The recovery rate is in agreement with other estimates from experts such as Dr. Glenn Fleisig. returned from UCL reconstruction to pitch in the majors, only 67 percent came back from shoulder surgeries. (From here on out, I’m examining only the pitchers who were major leaguers at the time of their surgery.) Whether because of recency bias or some other factor, we tend to forget once-great throwers like Johan Santana, Brandon Webb, and Kerry Wood, all of whose careers were cut short because of shoulder ailments. Wood, in particular, is an instructive example. He came back from Tommy John early in his career only to be done in by a rotator cuff surgery several years later.There are, of course, pitchers who never make it back from Tommy John, and if you are a Rangers fan, or simply a connoisseur of great pitching (as I am), even a 20 percent risk of Darvish never returning seems drastically high. But not all pitchers are the same. Using logistic regression, I examined how the risk of failing to return after UCL reconstruction varies by the characteristics of the specific pitcher in question.Starting pitchers are more likely to make it back than relievers, for example. I found that 90 percent of starters returned from Tommy John surgery, versus 74 percent of relievers. In addition, the better a pitcher is before his stint on the DL (measured by his strikeouts and walks per nine innings), the more likely he is to recover.How healthy that pitcher is before his surgery also matters. The longer the injury history, the less likely he is to successfully recuperate. All parts of a pitcher’s arm are connected in a kinetic chain. Because the pitching motion is so stressful on an arm, a problem at one end of the chain can weaken another end of it. Take Joel Zumaya, the fire-breathing reliever for the 2006 Detroit Tigers who never made it back from Tommy John. Zumaya had a long injury history, including problems in his hand, wrist, elbow and shoulder. No one can say with certainty which part of his arm was the one that ruined his chances of being a major league pitcher. Darvish, on the other hand, is a relatively healthy starting pitcher with excellent strikeout and walk numbers. He should be counted as among the most likely to make it back to MLB.There’s a pessimism that follows any pitcher to the DL — that even if he does return, he will never attain his former abilities again. There’s some merit to that: While many pitchers return to their former levels of performance, some seem to lose a measure of their ability. Francisco Liriano never again matched the 10.7 strikeouts per nine innings he put up in his rookie season, which was followed by elbow surgery. But for every Liriano, there’s an Adam Wainwright, the Cardinals ace. He averaged 8.3 K/9 in the year before his surgery and posted an identical 8.3 K/9 the year after.When I looked more generally at the historical record of pitchers who had undergone Tommy John, I found that there was an evident decline in their performance. However, it was not nearly as bad as the one that followed shoulder surgeries. Shoulder problems reduce strikeouts and increase walks, both to greater degrees than similarly severe problems to a pitcher’s elbow:Tommy John recipients barely saw their strikeouts drop at all. On average, strikeouts declined by 0.06 K/9 following Tommy John surgery. Contrast that with the sufferers of shoulder surgery, who saw a substantial (and much greater) average drop in K/9 of 0.37. That’s a 5 percent decrease for those pitchers.There was a 0.18 increase in walks per nine innings (BB/9) for the Tommy John recipients, but a greater 0.33 increase in BB/9 for the shoulder surgery recipients.There’s one other noticeable effect of these surgeries: Pitchers pitch less when they come back. Both types of pitcher injuries seem to lead to a decrease in innings pitched in the three years after the surgery relative to the years before. But, again, shoulder surgeries appear to be worse than elbow surgeries.Pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction saw their number of innings pitched decline by an average of about 53 innings in the three years following their return — no small margin. In contrast, pitchers who underwent shoulder surgery experienced a much greater decrease, notching more than 134 fewer innings.All this means that there are tons of players getting Tommy John surgery, but that’s not the worst fate for a pitcher these days. Darvish is very likely to return, likely to strike out nearly as many guys per game as he once did, but likely to do it in fewer innings. Rangers fans, you can stop worrying about Darvish’s elbow. Just keep praying his shoulder holds up. read more


McInnes condemns racist remarks made at Sinclair


first_imgAberdeen manager Derek McInnes has condemned racial slur made at Scott Sinclair during the Scottish League Cup final.McInnes has slammed the Aberdeen fan who racially abused the Celtic player, but he insists it was a situation regarding an individual rather than a widespread problem for the Pittodrie club.Sinclair revealed his disappointments regarding the situation on social media after seeing a video of the racial slur aimed at him as he had a penalty saved during his club’s 1-0 win at Hampden.Aberdeen defender Shay Logan, who was himself a victim of racial slurs that saw Celtic winger Aleksandar Tonev banned for seven games in 2014, also called the Sinclair incident an utter disgrace.“If using the skin colour of somebody is what you have to do to try to offend a fellow human being you are losing in life,” said Logan, according to the Scotsman.Derek McInnesDerek McInnes insists there isn’t a Premiership title race yet Henry Ikenna Ugwu – January 12, 2019 Aberdeen manager Derek McInnes believes there is no title race despite his side being one of the favourites to lift the Ladbrokes Premiership trophy…“BLACK WHITE ASIAN we are all the same.”McInnes also shares the views of his players as Aberdeen the fan will be punished duly once identifiedHe said: “Any racial abuse, in this day and age, is shocking. It’s embarrassing for the individual. It’s not a club issue for me. It’s the individual.”“That type of comment was maybe normal practice in the Sixties and Seventies, and it was appalling then and shocking then, and even more so now. It’s shocking that Scott Sinclair and any other player is still subjected to that.”last_img read more